The Best Protein Sources for Fitness and Bodybuilding

Female bodybuilder preparing protein mealMost people can get adequate protein for their bodybuilding / muscle toning exercise regime from a healthy, well-balanced diet. However, it is very easy to adopt an unhealthy diet accidentally while in the pursuit of more protein, as often good protein source also contain higher fat levels.

It is also worth pointing out that for many people additional protein supplements in the form of protein shakes are not needed. Note also that by bodybuilding, we mean building stronger muscles for any purpose, including athletics, martial arts, NFL, basketball, etc.

Here we look at the best dietary sources of protein and also look at supplements and vegetarian options.

Benefits of Protein

Protein is required to build and repair muscle tissue. It is also a rich energy source (it has the same calories per gram as carbohydrates, although less than fats). Protein is found in just about all animal products and animal by products so a well-balanced diet provides a rich variety of protein.

There are several different types of protein and these all work in slightly different ways. Is there a best type of protein for fitness and strength training?

What Is The Best Protein for Bodybuilding?

Many nutritionists believe that the best source of protein is direct from a healthy, well balanced diet. Protein supplements should only be taken when you cannot get enough protein from a diet without going over your daily calorie limit.

You should get as much of your protein as possible from meat, fish and seafood, eggs and poultry. Many bodybuilders agree that these are the best bodybuilding foods. Ideally you should eat organic, grass-fed and free range products too as these contain a “cleaner” source of proteins and fewer toxins and chemicals that may inhibit the effects of some proteins.

However, all of these food types should be eaten as close to a raw state as is possible as proteins are harmed during the cooking process. Raw eggs and smoked fish are great sources of protein. Protein supplements are very useful for vegetarians and vegans that are trying to build some muscle. These foods make a very lean bodybuilding diet, so let’s take a more detailed look.

Healthy & Lean Protein Sources

Healthy protein sources are foods which are considered to be lean protein foods – they are low in saturated fat and low in sugar. All processed meat is off the menu.

Fish and Seafood

Fish is possibly the healthiest source of protein available for athletes and bodybuilders. Tinned tuna is a fantastic source of protein – however ensure that you only use tuna in water / brine and not tuna in oil. The best fish are generally the deep-sea fish, like mackerel, sardines, pilchards and also salmon and trout. Oily fish contain essential fatty acids as well as protein.

Chicken, Turkey and other Fowl

Chicken and turkey are also very good sources of protein, and also low in fat. The skin of birds is fatty, so this should be removed. Some bodybuilders recommend eating the skin to get more protein and nutrients, however, we suggest eating a greater variety of food generally.


Firstly, eggs are healthy. Do not worry about them being high in cholesterol, as the cholesterol in eggs is actually good for you. Egg whites are a great source of protein and is lower in calories than the yolk, which is why many bodybuilders just eat the whites. However, the yolks contain a greater variety of nutrients, so for overall health, just eat the whole egg – it is also much easier to prepare if whole. Our personal favorite is scrambled eggs with smoked salmon on wholemeal toast.

Low fat milk

If you drink a lot of milk, go for the low-fat types. Full fat milk is especially high in calories, which is why so many people who buy Lattes from coffee shops are so overweight!

Lean Beef and Lamb

Note, lean beef, not burgers. The leaner the meat, the more protein per pound. As burgers are made from poorer quality meat, they are higher in fat, and contain less protein, and also clog up your arteries and eventually kill you.

Pork Chops

Like with the beef, pork is a good healthy source of protein, so long as it is of high quality and very lean. Sausages, hotdogs, wieners, bacon, salami etc are not good sources of protein.

Other Meats

You can get protein from all meat, but venison, lamb and rabbit are all good protein sources. Rabbits have a very high protein content.


Is cheese healthy? Is cheese bad for you? We are always hearing different points of view. Some people say cheese should be classed as junk food as it is so high in fat and relatively low in nutrition. However, there are some low-fat cheese, and cottage cheese is a good low-fat source of cheesy protein. Not everyone’s favorite cheese, but maybe the healthiest.

All Dairy

Although we suggested low-fat milk above, whole milk products are good sources of protein. Double cream is especially good. Bruce Lee used to suggest drinking double cream (he did not like milk himself, but understood the benefits of drinking milk for bodybuilders).

Diet Advice for Vegetarian Athletes and Bodybuilders

Vegetarians can have difficulty planning the right diet for their weight training and fitness needs. For general health and fitness a healthy and well-balanced vegetarian diet will provide enough protein.

However, for more serious athletes, martial artists and bodybuilders it is hard for vegetarians to get enough protein from their diet without some careful planning.

For vegetarians most protein comes from the following dietary sources:

  • Eggs
  • Tofu / Soy
  • Cheeses
  • Pulses / Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Cereals

Soy beans are an excellent source of textured vegetable protein (TVP). Milk and yogurt will contain proteins too. One of the favourite protein sources for vegetarians is eggs. Eggs are very healthy and contain many essential vitamins in addition to protein.

Eggs have managed to get a bad reputation in recent decades due to a few health scares, such as salmonella, and also the misconception that as eggs contain cholesterol they must be bad for your heart. This is simple not the case though, blood cholesterol levels generally rise in response to a diet high in saturated fats.

Nuts, seeds and soy beans all make excellent snacks for the vegetarian athlete. Cashews and almonds are around 25% protein and soy beans are 40% protein. This makes them one of the riches natural sources of protein available.

You still need to ensure you are getting a lot of carbs as during weight training your muscles will require glucose from the blood as well as using their own glycogen stores. Carbohydrates are quickly metabolized to release glucose, so eating these before training reduces the pressure your muscles will place on the stores of glycogen in your muscles during training, which means it is less likely that the muscles protein will be broken down during exercise.

Muscles with a good supply of glycogen can exercise for longer without tiring, and this in turn can increase muscle bulk, and further increase the amount of glycogen you can store. So, for glycogen, eat plenty of healthy carbs.

However, note that glycogen loading of muscles only works if your increased carbohydrate consumption is accompanied by intensive training, otherwise the extra glycogen will be converted to fat. So make sure you balance your diet daily in accordance with your training routine.

Also, it is vital for bodybuilders and endurance athletes to consume plenty of carbohydrates after training. Many people think that protein is the most important macronutrient to consume after exercise, but if the body is depleted of its glucose reserves (i.e. all the glycogen has been broken down and all available sugar burned for energy) then it will start to break down lean muscle tissue and fat for energy. This is not what we want after exercising, so to prevent muscles being broken down for their sugar it is important to consume some carbohydrates after exercise, especially a long and intensive session.

Many vegetarians chose to take a protein supplement, usually a whey protein drink after exercising. Protein supplements generally contain sugars too which help to replenish glycogen stores after exercise. Some protein supplements such as whey isolates have reduced sugar (less lactose) for those who are cutting, so these are best avoided if you are trying to bulk up.

Do You Need Protein Powder / Protein Shakes to Build Muscle?

If you have been reading up on how to build muscle and get fit then the chances are you have seen adverts for protein supplements. If you have sought advice on forums then people may have even suggested to you that you need to increase the amount of protein in your diet to help build muscle. But, do you really need additional protein? If you do, what type of protein should you take? Whey protein, casein protein, proteins from meat, dairy, soya? Everyone has a different opinion and often opinions are very biased.

Protein Shakes and Supplements

Really supplements should be the last resort every time. So often we hear about celebrities consuming protein shakes and little else. When they are doing this they are always trying to lose fat and gain muscle very quickly under the careful guidance of a fitness instructor.

Protein shakes are still very useful though. The two most useful times of day to have a protein shake are:

  • First thing in the morning – IF you are doing an early morning workout. If you do not have time to eat breakfast before your workout then a protein shake can be useful if you are doing a longer or intensive workout.
  • Immediately after exercise – IF you will not be eating for a while. After exercising your muscles crave proteins to start the repair process and many fitness professionals believe that a protein shake in the first 30 minutes after exercising helps to boost muscle growth significantly.

What Type of Protein – Egg, Casein or Whey?

The best protein sources are egg and whey proteins. Many people avoid soy proteins because they are often from intensively farmed sources or genetically modified. Soy proteins are often cheap.

Casein Protein

Casein protein contains an abundance of the amino acid glutamine which helps to preserve muscle mass. It also aids the immune system. Casein is digested slower than whey protein so helps to provide the body with a constant stream of proteins throughout the day. Having casein protein sources at meals times can be more beneficial. Many people also like to take a casein protein supplement before bed to keep the muscles growing well throughout the night.

Egg Protein

The best way to get egg protein is from eating eggs – obvious really. There are egg protein supplements available but why not just eat eggs? Scrambled eggs and omelets for breakfast and boiled eggs in salads for lunch are a great way to eat eggs. Eggs are low in calories and the cholesterol in eggs is mostly of the healthy type, so do not fear eating eggs.

Whey Protein

This is the most popular type of protein and is sourced from milk. It is absorbed much quicker than casein protein and is the type of protein that you should have immediately after exercising. Whey protein can also help boost the immune function, which helps ward of illness when you are training very hard. Whey protein is also a great source of amino acids that are vital for muscle growth.

Which Protein is Best?

Well, the answer is, all of them. Ideally you should have a well-balanced diet and take protein from a variety of sources and supplement when needed.

If there is something on this list that you are allergic to, that obviously would not be a good product for you. A food allergy test is recommended before you begin any supplementation program to determine if you have specific allergies and if there are particular substances your body has problems processing.

Also bear in mind that additional protein will not benefit you if your body is deprived of other nutrients, such as essential vitamins and minerals. For optimal health, make sure you consume enough protein, eat organic and supplement with a great multivitamin.

Do You Really Need Protein Shakes?

Just to recap, if you have a well-balanced diet then you may not need a protein shake to supplement your diet. If you do not have time to eat well before or after exercising then a protein shake may be advisable. Monitor your progress when exercising, if you are making strength and fitness gains without protein supplements then it is a good sign that you do not need them.

44 Comments on “The Best Protein Sources for Fitness and Bodybuilding”

  1. Like always a well informed article. One question. Is there a way out for vegetarian who aspires to be a bodybuilder?

  2. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Rahul,
    Vegetarians can certainly get a lot of protein from healthy sources such as eggs, cheeses, pulses, nuts, seeds, cereals and of course whey protein shakes. Soy protein is apparently very good too (contains textured vegetable protein).

  3. Is drinking raw egg safe like ‘Sylvester Stallone’ did in Rocky-1?

  4. MotleyHealth says:

    Yeah, safe enough. Use fresh eggs. Hygiene standard in hen farms has increased a lot since salmonella was a big problem.

  5. Ashleylovell65 says:

    This was a very interesting and informative article. Thanks for sharing!

  6. Great article! However, there are genuine reasons to make whey your primary source of supplemental protein.

    For instance, whey protein helps enhance satiety and facilitates weight/fat loss (Nutrition & Metabolism 2008, 5:8) while increasing production of glutathione, a critical antioxidant compound.

    It may even play a role in the suppression of tumor growth: Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13(8):813-28

  7. aniket sanjay wadnerkar says:

    I am working out form 6 months and not getting any response form my body. Even I am taking a supplement named power up. What should I do to get maximum muscle at less time. Please suggest me some home advise.

  8. MotleyHealth says:

    What are you currently doing? Do you do the same workout each day / week? I assume that you are a vegetarian, have you adjusted your diet, or just taking a supplement?

  9. Hi Motley

    I eat a micro meal every 3 hours, and ive been wondering how many grams of food those micro meals should be each meal.

  10. MotleyHealth says:

    Depends what your goal is. If you are trying to lose weight (fat) while also build muscle then you need to calculate your daily calorie needs, determine how many calories you need to eat to lose the required amount of weight (500 calories less a day for a pound a week, as an example) and then determine how many calories are in each portion of food. Then you will be able to weigh the food to get the right amount. Take a look at this calorie table. If you are just looking to build muscle and not lose fat, then you just need to maintain your fat levels but eat some additional proteins to aid muscle recovery and growth. Again that table should help your guess how many you need. Once you devise a plan, monitor your progress and adjust portion size as needed.

  11. MotleyHealth says:

    Great find gsingh, and interesting article. The key part regarding egg protein is:

    There is a study by some Belgian gastrointestinal physiologists on eggs. And what they discovered was that when you cook your eggs, then almost all of the protein is digested. So it’s digested to the point of about 94 percent, whereas if it is eaten raw, then only 55 to 64 percent of it is digested and the rest is lost.”

    So, don’t down raw eggs like Rocky, cook them so they taste nice and eat them! The article (transcript of a discussion) goes on to talk about denaturation, which is when heat breaks down the proteins to make them easier to digest.

    It then goes on to talk about cooking starches and how cooking breaks down the sugars and allows us to digest them and gain more calories from them, which is part of the reason why eating a raw food diet helps some people to lose weight – although raw eggs and meat will reduce protein intake. Also, in one experiment people who ate cooked sugars gained 30% more fat than those that ate raw sugars (in a controlled experiment). “Their metabolic rate was lower because their bodies were working less hard, because there was less to do.”

    The chap giving the answers there is Dr. Richard Wrangham, who studies human evolution, behaviour and development and also wrote the book Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human (Published by Basic Books, 2009. ISBN 0465013627).

  12. am vegetarian 23 years of age and weighs 68.5 kgs . I have joined gym 1 month back . please suggest me workout hours and diet as I want to build muscles. am 170 cms tall.

  13. Ritesh Tale says:

    I am Working out in gym from 3 months but not get ood response from my body/muscles…i’m vegeterion & nonvegeterion both but maximum time i eat vegeiterion food so plz suggest me which type of vegeterion food is most useful to get good muscles to me.

  14. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Riteshm the foods listed here are the best for vegetarians. Whey protein is a good option too.

  15. I am a vegetarian and recently decided to start drinking protein shakes immediately after my workout. My friend continues to tell me that I would benefit from creatine and other supplements prior to my working out. Would I really benefit from taking these supplements?

  16. MotleyHealth says:

    Maybe Ryan, maybe not. Honestly, the only way to know is to try. Log everything – log your diet, your workout and your body measurements and then determine for yourself if taking an additional supplement is helping. For many people more exercise and a better diet is enough.

  17. Hi, I’ve had a query for some time now.
    I work out around 4 times a week. I take my whey peotein shake after my workouts. Recently I read about Casein Protein and the fact that it is a good protein that prevents muscle mass and that it should be consumed before one goes to bed.
    Now, does casein protein interfere with whatever the whey protein does. since I am already consuming whey protein should i also consume Casein Protein supplement…before I got to bed. I hope that wouldnt result into a protein overdose???
    Please advise… Thanks
    PS: Is ON’s 100% Casein a good buy??

  18. I meant Muscle mass breakdown…sorry..

  19. MotleyHealth says:

    You can take casein and whey. Casein breaks down (digested) slower so provides a more steady supply of protein to your muscles. Whey breaks down faster. So whey is best straight after your weight training session when your muscles are screaming for food. Casein is best before bed or at breakfast to keep your protein levels topped up throughout the day. The only real problem may be consuming more calories than your body needs.

  20. Navneet Meena says:

    Sir I’m working out in gym and i want to know that if I’m eat fat contain food then is their any affect on build muscles and i want to build muscles fast…???

  21. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Navneet, eating fat does not help much. You need to focus on protein, which often comes with fat anyway. Fat just provides a lot of energy which makes weight gain (fat gain) more likely. Healthy fats are of course vital for a healthy diet, but as mentioned, these are in most good protein sources.

  22. hi, i’ve recently started the gym and my muscle tone is great, im eating eggs,fruit,meat,veg,tinned tuna,porridge, i dont use shakes as there horrible and i hate the taste but i seem to be gettin enough protein without it, my only concern is my belly fat i cant seem to get rid of it, do u have any ideas as to what i can change to help get rid of my belly fat? is there anything else i should try eatin?

    thank u

  23. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Terry, for belly fat, more cardio is the key. You need to “burn” the fat. Your diet looks good, reducing calories will slow muscle growth, so more cardio. Many bodybuilders do their cardio workouts in the morning then fuel up before hitting the gym in the afternoon or evening. Try to avoid doing cardio immediately before or after the weight training though.

  24. for how long one should continue taking protien shakes… i m 32 whn ever i m taking protien shakes i start bulking up.. muscle size increases but the prob is fat also increases on lower waist.. n as soon as i stop taking protien my muscles goes down faster thn d fat.. wht should i do…

  25. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Anup, sounds like you need to adjust your diet to reduce calories and maybe do more cardio.

  26. Hi there,
    I just wanted to share my experience to see if it may help somebody, as I know many vegans that feel completely lost when it comes to exercise, weight gain and muscle mass.

    I’ve always been athletic and did lift weights regularly about ten years ago. But only started lifting regularly again about 8 weeks ago. I’m vegan and I get about 60g protein daily from my normal diet, with elevated calorie needs accounted for. I’ve been using a combination of protein supplements in the form of 3-4 shakes per day. I generally supplement about 100g per day. I use NOW Pea Protein (28g per serving) and Nutiva Hi-Fiber Hemp Protein (11g per serving). I also take a plant enzyme supplement to help with digestion. I eat protein as recommended (morning, post-workout and 1 hour before bedtime). I take no other supplements like creatine, etc.

    My initial weight was 142lbs. and I was just barely above the ‘untrained’ benchmarks when I began my training, and now I am nearing the ‘intermediate’ benchmarks and weigh 156 pounds. My body fat % has increased from 16.5% to 17.2%, and I do not resent (or notice) the fat increase.

    I used Rippetoe’s ‘Starting Strength’ system as my guideline for exercise programming, though I do just a few more lifts than the standard 5 he recommends.

  27. Hi, I work out 3/4 times a weak (between 4pm/6pm ) and i eat my meal after work out ,which doesnt contain hight protein ,well it contains fish/meat/checken but not a big amount of them….so for dinner i eat an boiled egg and 500g yogurt and a can of baked beans and an egg and a glass of milk every morning.
    I’d like to know should i take those egg/yogurt/beans for lunch (after work out) or its ok to go on with this method….. and if i do so i will not have much of carb through my day as I eat rice everyday for lunch

  28. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi p08. Just monitor your progress. If you are not building muscle at the speed you want to be, eat more protein and lift more. If you are not losing fat at the rate you want to be, consumer fewer calories and do more cardio. Also, not sure if I misunderstand you of or you are saying that you are not getting carbs when you eat rice, but rice is carbs.

  29. Hello, This is DEv,I am 48 years old.My weight is 85.00Kg. I want to make body in shape with lean muscle.Which types of work out schedule you would recomended?I am giving you two option.Please suggest me which is best.
    (A) Option-1
    Monday & Thursday:- Chest-Bicep 04*3 Sets with 30 Min cardio
    Tuesday & Friday :- Shoulder -Legs 04*3 Sets with 30 Min cardio
    Wednessday & Saturday :- Back- Tricep 04*3 Sets with 30 Min cardio
    (B) Option-2
    Monday:- Chest-Bicep 04*3 Sets with 30 Min cardio
    Tuesday:- 70 Minutes Cardio, Stomach workout, Lower Back
    Wednesday:- Shoulder -Legs 04*3 Sets with 30 Min cardio
    Thursday:- 70 Minutes Cardio, Stomach workout, Lower Back
    Friday:- Back- Tricep 04*3 Sets with 30 Min cardio
    Saturday:- 70 Minutes Cardio, Stomach workout, Lower Back
    Which option is best for lean muscle?Plz answer me.


  30. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Dev, the second one should burn the most fat off, the first should help tone muscles the most. The only way to really know is to try both and assess for yourself how you are progressing.

  31. nino montalvo says:

    hi! i have a question, almonds are pretty high in fat, should i avoid eating them? i thought they were supposed to be natural?

  32. MotleyHealth says:

    Almonds are natural, and there is nothing wrong with some fat – we need fat.

  33. hi,how long can it take to build muscles??I am using whey protein and doing decent lifts.My diet chart too is decent enough,so how long can it take to build a decent physique?

  34. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Aman, define a decent physique. You can make very positive changes in a few months, but to get really big takes years. However, it really depends on how dedicated you are. Follow the plan, keep reviewing it, eat clean and healthy, get the protein, and above all, lift.

  35. HI Motley

    i Started taking Protein supplements a month back than after 20 days or so i started having a wired mild pain in my lower back. so thought i should stop taking protein supplement.. but i couldn’t figure out why this happened … now i start to thing that it may be because i drank less water… or ?

  36. MotleyHealth says:

    Impossible to say. If it happens again it might be worth speaking to a doctor. Are you sure it was not a muscular pain?

  37. Hi.motley….my goal is big biceps and lean abs…… Ihad bought musletech whey protein and monohydrate creatine bt idont know how to and when to take it…..plsss tell give me the properbdiet chart ….and im doing exercises in morning….so pls consult me

  38. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Prince, drink your whey protein straight after weight training. The creatine can be taken at the same time. I will look into creating a diet chart that will help everybody – it will appear on a new page so remember to subscribe (top right).

  39. Have a look: Anabolic Monster Whey BOX with Shaker – 2.2 kg ;)

  40. MotleyHealth says:

    That stuff looks alright, doesn’t it?

  41. Roy Walker says:

    Protein has more calories than Carbs?? Show me the science on that please.

  42. MotleyHealth says:

    Hi Roy,

    IS A CALORIE A CALORIE - Andrea C Buchholz and Dale A Schoeller
    Source: Is a calorie a calorie? – Andrea C Buchholz and Dale A Schoeller. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 79, Issue 5, 1 May 2004, Pages 899S–906S,
    Published: 01 May 2004.

    Although I admit, the general rule that proteins and carbs have 4 Calories per gram, and fats 9 Calories per gram, is often a close enough approximation. I’ll edit the article. Thanks for pointing it out.

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